Find a scrap board and place it on bare dirt. Come back in a day or two, lift the board, and see how many species have found shelter there. Identify these creatures with the help of a field guide (you may already have one or you can look online for images that look like your new buddies). Return to this universe once a month, lift the board and discover who's new. Draw sketches of your new friends. Create a journal of findings over time. Investigate the life cycle of one or more of these species.
Some questions to ask:
Why do you think these creatures are here?
How many different kinds of creatures have you found?
How are their related? How are they different?
What influence does the weather have on the number of species?
(Adapted from Richard Louv's Last Child in the Woods Resource Guide, http://richardlouv.com/books/last-child/resource-guide/)